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2 edition of Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures found in the catalog.

Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures

Waldemar Theodore Ziegler

Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures

by Waldemar Theodore Ziegler

  • 220 Want to read
  • 27 Currently reading

Published by U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Office of Technical Services in Washington .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Hydrocarbons.,
  • Vapor pressure.,
  • Low temperatures.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby W.T. Ziegler.
    SeriesNBS technical note ;, 4
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTP248.H9 Z5
    The Physical Object
    Pagination18 p. :
    Number of Pages18
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL5789957M
    LC Control Number59064158
    OCLC/WorldCa36709513

    Let p be the saturation vapor pressure and T the temperature. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation for the equilibrium between liquid and vapor is then dp/dT = L/(T(V v-V l)) where L is the latent heat of evaporation, and V v and V l are the specific volumes at temperature T of the vapor and liquid . In thermodynamics and chemical engineering, the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) describes the distribution of a chemical species between the vapor phase and a liquid phase.. The concentration of a vapor in contact with its liquid, especially at equilibrium, is often expressed in terms of vapor pressure, which will be a partial pressure (a part of the total gas pressure) if any other gas(es.

    The Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) for liquid-vapor equilibrium is extended to model the solid-vapor (sublimation) and solid-liquid (melting) phase equilibria for carbon dioxide (CO2).   Gases become liquids; liquids become solids. On the other hand, increasing temperature and decreasing pressure allows particles to move father apart. Solids become liquids; liquids become gases. Depending on the conditions, a substance may skip a phase, so a solid may become a gas or a gas may become a solid without experiencing the liquid phase.

    Paraffin / Wax. The wax present in petroleum crudes primarily consists of paraffin hydrocarbons (C18 - C36) known as paraffin wax and naphthenic hydrocarbons (C30 - C60). Hydrocarbon components of wax can exist in various states of matter (gas, liquid o r solid) depending on their temperature and pressure. @article{osti_, title = {Vapor pressures of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons}, author = {Macknick, A B and Prausnitz, J M}, abstractNote = {A gas-saturation apparatus is used to obtain experimental data at near-ambient temperature; vapor pressures in the range 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -/3 torr are presented for the liquids n-octadecane, n-eiosane, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2.


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Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures by Waldemar Theodore Ziegler Download PDF EPUB FB2

Thevaporpressuresof somehydrocarbonsinthe liquidandsolidstate atlowtemperatures er s& mentofcommerce nationalbureauofstandards.

nationalbureauofstandards state solid* 10mmhg,°c a b c methaneliquid Genre/Form: Ebook: Additional Physical Format: Print version: Ziegler, Waldemar Theodore, Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures.

The Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures / by W.T. Ziegler. by Ziegler, W. (Waldemar Theodore), Full text of "The Vapor pressures of some hydrocarbons in the liquid and solid state at low temperatures / by W.T.

other formats JIN ^ecknical rlote PB No. 4 THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOME HYDROCARBONS IN THE LIQUID AND SOLID STATE AT LOW TEMPERATURES by W. T Ziegler s& U. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL BUREAU. In an open container, a liquid like water will completely evaporate eventually, even at low temperatures (even ice will disappear eventually, because solids also have vapor pressure).

This happens because when the molecules become gas, they can diffuse away instead of staying near the surface, and maybe bumping it and getting stuck again. Example 4. Use Figure “Plots of Vapor Pressure versus Temperature for Several Liquids” to estimate the boiling point of water at torr, which is the approximate atmospheric pressure at the top of Mount Everest.

Solution. See the accompanying figure. Five hundred torr is between andso we extend a line from that point on the y-axis across to the curve for water and then. Accuracy: For many substances, vapor pressures are only poorly known; expect errors up to a few 10% of the vapor pressure value and up to approx.

10% of the temperature especially at high temperatures. For very low vapor pressures, errors can be much larger. Boiling Points for common Liquids and Gases - Boiling temperatures for some common liquids and gases - acetone, butane, propane.

Butane - Thermal Conductivity - Online calculators, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous butane, C 4 H 10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units. The fact that water on Earth can readily be found in all three states (solid, liquid, and gas) is in part a consequence of the fact that the triple point of water (T = °C, P = atm) falls within a range of temperatures and pressures found on Earth.

Saturn's largest moon Titan has a considerable amount of methane in its atmosphere. Boiling is actually just a change of state from liquid to vapor, and the temperature that occurs varies greatly based on the substance being boiled and the pressure around the substance. In an air conditioner or a refrigeration system, refrigerant is designed to boil at a low temperature that corresponds to the design of the system.

Vaporization even under pseudo-steady state conditions is a compli-the air velocity distributions above the liquid, liquid surface tempera-ture, vapor pressure, diffusion coefficient, molecular weight, and 4 geometric factors. A semi-empirical expression has been developed (Section VI) which includes these parameters and which accurately models.

The processing pressures used during solid-liquid extractions using a hydrocarbon solvent have little to no effect on solubility [4, 6].

However, process pressure is an important parameter to consider when using hydrocarbon solvents at increased temperatures. As the solvent temperature increases, so will the vapor pressure.

QUES: Name some of the compounds in the table and state whether the compound will be a gas, liquid, or solid state at room temperature (20 o C). Hint: If the boiling point is below 20 o C, then the liquid has already boiled and is a gas. Vapor Pressure. When a partially filled container of liquid is sealed with a stopper, some liquid molecules at the surface evaporate into the vapor r, the vapor molecules cannot escape from the container and so after a certain amount of time, the space above the liquid reaches a point where it cannot hold any more vapor molecules.

Reid Vapor Pressure. Reid vapor pressures (RVPs) are sometimes specified by crude oil purchasers, particularly if the crude is to be transported by tanker or truck prior to reaching a processing plant.

Purchasers specify low RVPs so that they will not be paying for light components in the liquid, which will be lost due to weathering. Epaminondas Voutsas, in Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues, Vapour Pressure.

Vapour pressure of a pure compound is the pressure characteristic at any given temperature of a vapour in equilibrium with its liquid or solid form. Vapour pressure is a measure of the ability of a compound to bond with itself; compound molecules that bond well with each other will have a.

the temperatures and pressures of the liquid-vapor equilibrium for 17 paraffin, 14 alkylcyclopentane, 8 alkylcyclohexane, and 21 alkylbenzene hydro­ carbons.

TABLE 1. Experimental data jor 60 hydrocarbons on the temperatures and pressures oj the liquid-vapor equilibrium I t. Hydrocarbons are molecules of carbon and hydrogen in various combinations.

Hydrocarbon gas liquids are hydrocarbons that occur as gases at atmospheric pressure and as liquids under higher pressures. HGL can also be liquefied by cooling. The specific pressures and temperatures at which the gases liquefy vary by the type of HGL.

-A liquid can evaporate at any temperature. There will always be some molecules in the liquid with enough energy to escape into the vapor phase. The boiling point is specifically defined as the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external pressure.-If the external pressure increases the substance will have to be.

A liquid phase facilitates chemical reactions, something that has been known empirically for centuries. As a solvent, a liquid allows dissolved reactants to encounter each other at rates that are higher than the rates of encounter between species in a solid. At the same time, a solvent provides an.

2 Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point The vapor pressure of a liquid is related to its heat of vaporization, H vap, through the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation: If P 1 = 1 atm, then T 1 is the normal boiling point, and we can determine the vapor pressure at any other.Figure Vapor pressure curves for diethyl ether [(C 2 H 3) 2 O], ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH), and water.

Each curve represents conditions of T and P of which the two phases, liquid and vapor, are in equilibrium. These compounds exist as liquids for temperatures and pressures to the left of the curve and as gases under conditions to the right of.Ice melts to form water, and water evaporates to form water vapor.

The pressure exerted by the water vapor is the vapor pressure. In more general terms, vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a gas in equilibrium with the same material in l.